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Banana

BANANA
Banana (Musa paradisiaca L.) occupies over 1,64,000 hectares, mainly in Tamil Nadu, West Bengal, Kerala and etc,. Though some inferior types of banana are found growing as far north as the Himalayas and Kodaikanal hills, it's commercial importance is very very high in the local and global market this type of banana is known as Hill Banana.

HARVESTING.
The bunch is harvested just before it attains the ripening stage. When the fruits have reached the full size, they become plump, and mature with a distinct change in colour. For long transport, the bunch may be harvested somewhat earlier. The bunch is cut, retaining about 15 cm of the stem above the first hand. The yield varies considerably from 26,000 to 55,000 kg per hectare.



Lemon

Citrus Fruits
Citrus is grown in almost all the states of India. The total area covered is over 67,650 hectares, of which Madhya Pradesh, Madras and Maharashtra have the largest share. Citrus trees are grown in almost all kinds of soils, varying from heavy black soils to shallow open soils. Some of the varieties of citrus seem to adapt themselves to soil conditions better than others. They thrive in free-draining alluvial or medium black soil of loamy texture. A hard substratum or a sticky impervious layer is very injurious. Soils having a high water-table should be avoided. Though citrus trees on the whole do well in dry climate, with a rainfall between 75 and 125 cm, certain species, such as pummelo and certain mandarin oranges, thrive in heavy-rainfall areas of Konkan, Assam and Coorg.



Lemon
Lemon (Citrus limon (L.) Burm.f) is not cultivation to any great extent in India, as it requires a comparatively cool climate for regular bearing. Its fruit is not so highly flavored as that of sour lime.

Lime.
The lime(Citrus aurantiifolia Swingle), both sour and sweet, known as kaghzi nimboo and mitha respectively, are more orized in India than lemon. Sour lime is propagated mainly from seed. Budding on rough lemon rootstock, layering and morcotting are also practiced to some extent. The tree is susceptible to frost. It flowers twice a year in February-March and again in August. The main crop is obtained in August from the first flowering. The second crop is ready in the following February.

The propagation of sweet lime is done from mature wood cuttings which root readily. It can also be propagated from seeds and the seedlings, usually come true to type. Planting of limes and their pruning, manuring, etc. are the same as for the sweet orange.



Sweet Orange

Sweet orange.
Sweet Orange. (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck) is grown under both subtropical and tropical conditions. Dry and arid conditions, coupled with distinct summer and winter having low rainfall, are most favourable to the growth of the sweet orange. Rainfall seems to be unimportant if irrigation is provided, but atmospheric humidity exerts a great influence.

The sweet orange can be grown on a wide range of soils, from heavy clays to very light sands, with pH ranging from 6.0 to 8.0. The tree is particularly sensitive to high concentrations of salts and cannot stand water-logging.


Guva

Guava.
Guva. (Psidium guajava L.). The total area under guava in the country is about 30,000 hectares, of which Uttar Pradesh has the largest area (9,840 hectares), followed closely by Bihar (4,800 hectares). It is a very hardy tree, withstanding heat and prolonged droughts, but is susceptible to frost. A cool winter induces heavy fruiting. It grows in all types of soils having pH ranging from 4.5 to 8.2. Its fruit is rich in vitamin C (35 to 100 mg per 100 g) content.



Papaya

Papaya.
Papaya. (Carica papaya L.). Papaya occupies a very small area, yet its cultivation is widespread in the country. It grows well almost everywhere, except at altitudes higher than 1,500 meters. It cannot tolerate low temperatures. A dry warm climate is necessary. Strong winds are highly detrimental to the trees as the hollow stems break easily. Even though the tree is adapted to a wide range of soils, it grows best in the loamy soil. Deep clayey soils that are prone to water-logging should be avoided. In heavy-rainfall areas, a prolonged stagnation of water near its stem is highly injurious.


Pineapple

Pineapple.
Pineapple (Ananas comusus (L.) Merr.) occupies about 12,000 hectares and is grown mainly in Assam, West Bengal, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Karnataka. It is a humid tropical plant and grows well, both in the plains and also at elevations not exceeding 900 meters. It tolerates neither very high temperatures nor frost. It grows in almost any type of soil, provided it is free-draining.


Jackfruit

Jackfruit.
Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lamk.) is grown in southern India as stray trees in home gardens and coffee plantations where it flourishes in the humid climate on hill slopes. Warmer plains are suitable, provided there is adequate soil moisture. Cold and frost are harmful.



Avocado

Avocado
is a dicotyledonous evergreen. Trees attain a height of 60 feet(18 meters). They differ in habit of growth. Some are low and spreading; others are tall and upright. The leaves are thick, leathery, and bright green. They vary in shape and in length - 3 to 16 inches (7 to 35 centimeters).

The fruit is one-seeded, fleshy berry and varies from round to oval to pyriform or necked. Both seed and flesh vary greatly in size. The skin is yellowish-green, purplish-green to purplish-blue, thin and membranous in some varieties and thick and woody in others. The flesh, which separates readily from the skin, is light green to yellow and has a buttery consistency. It contains from 10 to 20 percent fat and about 80 percent water and is a good source of vitamin C.

Avocado In the past, the avocado had a well-entrenched reputation for inducing sexual prowess and wasn't purchased or consumed by any person wishing to protect their image from slanderous assault. Growers had to sponsor a public relations campaign to dispel the ill-founded reputation before avocados became popular.

Avocados must reach full maturity before they are picked, however, they do not soften on the tree. The tree can actually be used as a storage unit by keeping the fruit on the tree for many months after maturing.


  
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